Odontochilus (Orchidaceae), comprises about 40 species, from northern India and the Himalayas through Southeast Asia, as far north as Japan, and east to the southwestern Pacific islands. Four species of Odontochilus were recorded in the 2nd edition of the Flora of Taiwan. The occurrence of the fifth species, O. nanlingensis, was reported from northern Taiwan in 2009. The present paper reports an additional new distributional record, O. poilanei (Gagnep.) Ormerod, from central Taiwan.This species was previously known to occur in Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Japan, and southern China. In this paper, a taxonomic description, line drawings, a distribution map, color photographs, conservation status, and a key to the 6 Odontochilus spp. in Taiwan are provided.