Camellia seed oil has long been used as an edible oil by Taiwanese people. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various times of fruit harvesting on the seed size, seed germination, kernel oil content and composition from 2 sites with 5 mother trees of a native species of Camellia brevistyla. Results showed that fruits harvested from the 2 sites at the end of June had small seeds, and moisture contents and germination percentages were > 80% and 0~54%, respectively. Fruits harvested from Tai’an Township, Miaoli County in late July had matured, and moisture contents and germination percentages were 55~66% and 90~99%, respectively. However, fruits from 2 mother trees in Longtan Township, Taoyuan exhibited delayed maturation for 6 weeks until early September, and moisture contents were 48 and 66% and germination percentages were 99 and 93%. The shortest times to a 50% germination of seeds of the 5 mother trees were 52~70 d. The mean kernel oil percentages from seeds of 5 mother trees harvested before September were < 20%, but the percentage increased to 32% in early October, and among them, 1 tree from Tai’an, Miaoli reached 42%. The maximum mean kernel oil percentage of seeds harvested in the middle of October was 35%. Fatty acid compositions of kernel oil from the 5 mother trees were investigated on different dates, and we found that after September, the highest content was of oleic acid (C18:1) at 70~82%, followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) at 9~16%, with palmitic acid (C16:0) with stearic acid (C18:0) contents of < 10%. Squalene and vitamin E of kernel oil were also analyzed, and both contents gradually increased with time of harvest. However, squalene contents reached a maximum in August and September, and among the 5 mother trees, 1 tree from Longtan, Taoyuan had maximum squalene contents of 800~900 μg g-1 kernel oil, and it reached 1217.8 μg in early October. Vitamin E from all mother trees had maximum contents in the middle of October, and 2 mother trees had maximum vitamin E contents of 1007.4 and 1057.5 μg g-1 kernel oil. Site differences in seed maturation times from the 2 sites exhibited 6 weeks of variance. Further, to produce maximum seed oil, oleic acid, squalene, and vitamin E, we suggest that the best harvest date is from late September to October.